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Author (up) Frewen, P.; Hegadoren, K.; Coupland, N.J.; Rowe, B.H.; Neufeld, R.W.J.; Lanius, R. url  doi
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  Title Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment I: Prospective Study in Acutely Traumatized Persons Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Trauma & Dissociation : the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD) Abbreviated Journal J Trauma Dissociation  
  Volume 16 Issue 5 Pages 500-519  
  Keywords 4-D model; childhood abuse and neglect; dissociation; posttraumatic stress disorder; trauma-related altered states of consciousness  
  Abstract A theoretical framework referred to as a 4-D model has been described for classifying posttraumatic stress symptoms into those potentially occurring within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those thought to intrinsically exemplify dissociative experiences, specifically, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). As a further test of this theoretical distinction, this prospective study evaluated whether TRASC and NWC forms of distress incrementally and prospectively predicted functional impairment at 6 and 12 weeks following presentation at hospital emergency departments in the acute aftermath of traumatic events in 180 persons. Establishing the clinical significance of both TRASC and NWC-distress symptoms, we found that 6-week markers of TRASC and NWC-distress independently predicted 12-week self-reported levels of social and occupational impairment. We also observed broad support for various predictions of the 4-D model except that, in contrast with hypotheses, childhood trauma history was generally more strongly correlated with symptoms of NWC-distress than with TRASC. Future research directions are discussed.  
  Address f Department of Psychiatry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience , Western University , London , Ontario , Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1529-9732 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26378486 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42174  
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