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Author Lanius, R.A. url  openurl
  Title Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 27905  
  Keywords Dissociation; anterior cingulate; complex PTSD; consciousness; dissociative subtype; emotion; insula; interoceptive awareness  
  Abstract The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.  
  Address Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; Ruth.Lanius@lhsc.on.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25994026 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42183  
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Author Schalinski, I.; Schauer, M.; Elbert, T. url  openurl
  Title The shutdown dissociation scale (shut-d) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 25652  
  Keywords Ptsd; Shutdown dissociation; assessment; multiple trauma; subtype  
  Abstract The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25976478 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42184  
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Author Briere, J.; Runtz, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissociation in individuals denying trauma exposure: findings from two samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Abbreviated Journal J Nerv Ment Dis  
  Volume 203 Issue 6 Pages 439-442  
  Keywords Adult; Affective Symptoms/*psychology; Aged; Dissociative Disorders/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Young Adult  
  Abstract A number of studies suggest that dissociation is reliably related to trauma exposure, and that inadequate regulation of posttraumatic distress may be a significant factor. We examined whether affect dysregulation predicts dissociation in those denying any lifetime exposure to trauma. These relationships were evaluated in a general population sample and a second sample of nontraumatized university students. In the first study, multivariate analyses indicated that, along with gender, affect dysregulation was a relatively strong predictor, accounting for 27% of the variance in dissociation. In the replication study, dissociation was associated with affect dysregulation, but not gender. Affect dysregulation seems to predict dissociative symptomatology in nontraumatized individuals. It is hypothesized that emotional distress, whether from trauma or other etiologies, motivates dissociation to the extent that it challenges the individual's compromised capacity for affect regulation. Treatment implications may include the potential helpfulness of interventions that increase emotion regulation skills.  
  Address *Departments of Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences and Psychology, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; and daggerDepartment of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3018 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25974057 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42185  
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Author Tsai, J.; Armour, C.; Southwick, S.M.; Pietrzak, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissociative subtype of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. veterans Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Psychiatric Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychiatr Res  
  Volume 66-67 Issue Pages 67-74  
  Keywords Dissociation; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Substance abuse; Veterans  
  Abstract The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) formally introduced a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the proportion of U.S. veterans with DSM-5 PTSD that report dissociative symptoms; and compared veterans with PTSD with and without the dissociative subtype and trauma-exposed controls on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and quality of life. Multivariable analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of 1484 veterans from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (second baseline survey conducted September-October, 2013). Of the 12.0% and 5.2% of veterans who screened positive for lifetime and past-month DSM-5 PTSD, 19.2% and 16.1% screened positive for the dissociative subtype, respectively. Among veterans with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype reported more severe PTSD symptoms, comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use problems, and hostility than those without the dissociative subtype. Adjusting for PTSD symptom severity, those with the dissociative subtype continued to report more depression and alcohol use problems. These results underscore the importance of assessing, monitoring, and treating the considerable proportion of veterans with PTSD and dissociative symptoms.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; United States Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Clinical Neurosciences Division, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, United States  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3956 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25969340 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42186  
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Author van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Frank, L.E.; van der Hart, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association of Childhood Complex Trauma and Dissociation With Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Adulthood Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Trauma & Dissociation : the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD) Abbreviated Journal J Trauma Dissociation  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 428-441  
  Keywords childhood trauma; complex posttraumatic stress disorder; dissociation  
  Abstract This study replicates and extends prior research on the relationship of childhood complex trauma (CCT) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) in adulthood, examining the role of psychoform and somatoform dissociation as a potential mediator. CCT, dissociation, and cPTSD were assessed in a large sample of adult psychiatric inpatients. Almost two thirds of participants reported having experienced CCT. Path analyses with bootstrap confidence intervals demonstrated a relationship between CCT, psychoform (but not somatoform) dissociation, and cPTSD. In addition, psychoform dissociation partially mediated the relationship between CCT and adult cPTSD symptoms. Dissociation (pathological or nonpathological psychoform and somatoform symptoms) warrants further clinical and scientific study as a potential link between CCT and the presence of adult cPTSD symptoms and/or the dissociative subtype of PTSD.  
  Address a Yulius Academy & Colk Yulius , Rotterdam , The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1529-9732 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25905664 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42187  
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Author Frewen, P.A.; Brown, M.F.D.; Steuwe, C.; Lanius, R.A. url  openurl
  Title Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 26406  
  Keywords Posttraumatic stress disorder; dissociation; dissociative subtype; psychological trauma; trauma-related altered states of consciousness  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. METHOD: We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. RESULTS: A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.  
  Address Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25854673 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42188  
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Author Minshew, R.; D'Andrea, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Implicit and explicit memory in survivors of chronic interpersonal violence Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice and Policy Abbreviated Journal Psychol Trauma  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 67-75  
  Keywords *Domestic Violence; Female; Humans; *Memory; Psychological Tests; Self Report; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology/therapy; Surveys and Questionnaires; Survivors/*psychology  
  Abstract We investigated the relationship of implicit and explicit memory to a range of symptoms in a sample of 27 women with exposure to chronic interpersonal violence (IPV). Participants viewed the first 3 letters (“stems”) of trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words; valenced words were matched with neutral words with the same stem. Free recall and a word-stem completion task were used to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively. Participants exhibited increased implicit memory for trauma-related words as compared with both general threat words and neutral “match” words. They also showed increased explicit memory for both general threat and trauma-related words. Finally, although neither implicit nor explicit memory was correlated with PTSD symptoms, implicit memory for trauma-related words was significantly correlated with symptoms associated with ongoing IPV. Interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and alexithymia were significantly correlated with implicit, but not explicit, memory for trauma words. Somatization, dissociation, and alexithymia were negatively correlated with explicit, but not implicit, memory for general-threat words. These findings suggest that memory processes in survivors of IPV are closely related to the symptom profile associated with complex trauma. Exploring memory processes in survivors of IPV may lend unique insight into the development and maintenance of the symptom profile associated with IPV.  
  Address Department of Psychology  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1942-969X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25793595 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42189  
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Author Frankfurt, S.; Anders, S.L.; James, L.M.; Engdahl, B.; Winskowski, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating the dimensionality of PTSD in a sample of OIF/OEF veterans Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice and Policy Abbreviated Journal Psychol Trauma  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 430-436  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Both categorical and dimensional models of mental disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are useful for diagnostic and heuristic purposes; however, few empirical studies have compared categorical and dimensional models of PTSD side-by-side or compared these models to a hybrid (dimensional and categorical) model. In the present study, the dimensionality of PTSD was examined by fitting latent profile analytic, confirmatory factor analytic, and factor mixture models in 271 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans 6 months after return from deployment. Latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar PTSD symptom profiles and predictors of subgroup membership, confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the underlying continuous structure of PTSD in this sample, and factor mixture modeling was used to test whether a hybrid categorical and continuous model of PTSD best fit our sample. A factor mixture model consisting of a 4-factor dysphoria model of PTSD with 2 classes characterized by low and moderate symptom severity was the best-fitting model. Dissociation and deployment concerns emerged as significant predictors of membership in the moderate symptoms class. Implications for PTSD diagnostic conceptualization and treatment planning are discussed.  
  Address Brain Science Center, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1942-969X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25793318 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42190  
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Author Nicholson, A.A.; Densmore, M.; Frewen, P.A.; Theberge, J.; Neufeld, R.W.; McKinnon, M.C.; Lanius, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychopharmacology  
  Volume 40 Issue 10 Pages 2317-2326  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.  
  Address Lawson Health Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0893-133X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25790021 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42191  
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Author Hansen, M.; Armour, C.; Wang, L.; Elklit, A.; Bryant, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing possible DSM-5 ASD subtypes in a sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following multiple forms of traumatic exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Anxiety Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Anxiety Disord  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 84-89  
  Keywords Crime Victims/*psychology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Disaster Victims/*psychology; Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis; Female; Humans; Male; Rape/psychology; Self Report; Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/*diagnosis/psychology; Violence/psychology; ASD subtypes; Acute stress disorder; Dsm-5; Icd-11; Latent profile analysis  
  Abstract Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the DSM-IV to recognize early traumatic responses and as a precursor of PTSD. Although the diagnostic criteria for ASD were altered and structured more similarly to the PTSD definition in DSM-5, only the PTSD diagnosis includes a dissociative subtype. Emerging research has indicated that there also appears to be a highly symptomatic subtype for ASD. However, the specific nature of the subtype is currently unclear. The present study investigates the possible presence of ASD subtypes in a mixed sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following four different types of traumatic exposure (N=472). The results of latent profile analysis revealed a 5-class solution. The highly symptomatic class was marked by high endorsement on avoidance and dissociation compared to the other classes. Findings are discussed in regard to its clinical implications including the implications for the pending the ICD-11 and the recently released DSM-5.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0887-6185 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25768397 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42192  
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