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Author Nash, W.P.; Boasso, A.M.; Steenkamp, M.M.; Larson, J.L.; Lubin, R.E.; Litz, B.T.
Title Posttraumatic stress in deployed Marines: prospective trajectories of early adaptation Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Abnormal Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Psychol
Volume 124 Issue 1 Pages 155-171
Keywords
Abstract We examined the course of PTSD symptoms in a cohort of U.S. Marines (N = 867) recruited for the Marine Resiliency Study (MRS) from a single infantry battalion that deployed as a unit for 7 months to Afghanistan during the peak of conflict there. Data were collected via structured interviews and self-report questionnaires 1 month prior to deployment and again at 1, 5, and 8 months postdeployment. Second-order growth mixture modeling was used to disaggregate symptom trajectories; multinomial logistic regression and relative weights analysis were used to assess the role of combat exposure, prior life span trauma, social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and avoidant coping as predictors of trajectory membership. Three trajectories best fit the data: a low-stable symptom course (79%), a new-onset PTSD symptoms course (13%), and a preexisting PTSD symptoms course (8%). Comparison in a separate MRS cohort with lower levels of combat exposure yielded similar results, except for the absence of a new-onset trajectory. In the main cohort, the modal trajectory was a low-stable symptoms course that included a small but clinically meaningful increase in symptoms from predeployment to 1 month postdeployment. We found no trajectory of recovery from more severe symptoms in either cohort, suggesting that the relative change in symptoms from predeployment to 1 month postdeployment might provide the best indicator of first-year course. The best predictors of trajectory membership were peritraumatic dissociation and avoidant coping, suggesting that changes in cognition, perception, and behavior following trauma might be particularly useful indicators of first-year outcomes.
Address VA Boston Healthcare System
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-843X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition (up) Conference
Notes PMID:25419860 Approved no
Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42197
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Author Auxemery, Y.
Title [Clinical forms of post-traumatic depression] Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication L'Encephale Abbreviated Journal Encephale
Volume 41 Issue 4 Pages 346-354
Keywords Deuil post-traumatique; Deuil traumatique; Depression masquee; Depression post-traumatique; Depression traumatique; Post-concussive syndrome; Posttraumatic depression; Posttraumatic grief; Psychic trauma; Psychopathologie; Psychopathology; Psychopharmacologie; Psychopharmacology; Syndrome post-commotionnel; Traumatic depression; Traumatic grief; Traumatisme psychique
Abstract INTRODUCTION: As a result of determinants specific to the psychopathological structure of the psychological trauma, psycho-traumatised patients very rarely solicit the health care system directly with a request for treatment centred on their trauma. The medical profession is consulted for non-specific symptoms and complications, which are mainly somatoform, addictions and depressive disorders. After a few epidemiological reminders followed by a discussion concerning contemporary depressive and post-traumatic nosographic features, we define, through our clinical experience collated with the data in the literature, different clinical and etiopathogenic contexts of post-traumatic depression in order to control their therapeutic treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Burnout post-traumatic depression in response to re-experiencing is the most common: it is a reactive psycho-physiological burnout in response to the emotional distress re-experienced during flashbacks, insomnia, a constant feeling of insecurity and the deleterious consequences of this symptomatology in terms of social adaptation. A common genetic predisposition affecting serotoninergic regulation seems to be a vulnerability marker of both depressive and psychotraumatic symptoms. In this case, SSRI will be effective on sadness. In addition, these antidepressants have been widely prescribed for the first-line treatment of depressive and psychotraumatic symptoms. However, this pharmacological class is often insufficient in relieving autonomic hyperactivity such as re-experiencing which are mediated more by noradrenergic hyperactivity. SNRI such as venlafaxine can be used as a first-line treatment. Post-traumatic depression with psychotic features congruent with mood is dominated by a feeling of incurability; the subject blames himself and feels guilty about the traumatic event and its consequences. Symptoms of denial of identity are sometimes observed: confined by an intense depersonalization, the psycho-traumatised subject evokes that he is “no longer himself” and that his mind “is disconnected”. Confronted with the psychological emptiness of the traumatic scene, the psycho-traumatised subject remains devoid of thought as if their mind has left him. In addition to antidepressant therapy, an atypical antipsychotic drug must be prescribed to relieve the melancholic symptoms as well as the concomitant psychotraumatic symptoms. Post-traumatic depression masked by peripheral physical injuries is the result of accidents combining psychological and physical impairment. The physical pain resulting from the accident regularly recalls the drama in the same way as traumatic re-experiencing. Depression masked by this somatic suffering is difficult to diagnose, but the repeated somatic complaints at the forefront of the request for treatment, the breakdown of self-esteem as well as the level of subjective strain due to pain and dysesthesia are all indications. The psychotherapy will focus on the symbolic reconstruction of the organs that have been damaged or destroyed, with the aim of healing the extensive narcissistic impairment. Post-concussive depression is diagnosed following a head trauma, however severe. It is sometimes assigned to neurological lesions and at other times recognised as the expression of a purely psychological reaction. Antidepressant therapy, or possibly trial therapy, is often indicated. The terms traumatic grief and post-traumatic grief are often used synonymously in publications: a conceptual opposition must however been recalled. If the traumatic grief is the result of the loss of an object that holds much psychological importance for the individual, the subject has not however been traumatised by this event and is not suffering and will not suffer from re-experiencing. The therapy will include methods used in the psychotherapeutic treatment of grief; antidepressants are often insufficient. Differently, post-traumatic grief takes shape when the loss of another is concomitant with the confrontation with the reality of the death witnessed in a moment of peri-traumatic dissociation. This grief is often observed following the discovery of the body of a close friend or family member who has committed suicide, or when part of a family has been decimated by an accident whilst the survivors watch their close relations die pending the arrival of the emergency services, or when a military comrade is wounded in combat in front of his partner. The mourning process cannot really begin until the flashbacks cease. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical depression or even melancholia, possibly masked by somatic or post-concussive complaints, is often the initial mode of contact with the health care system for the psycho-traumatised subject. The different clinical and etiopathogenic contexts of post-traumatic depression that we have developed in this work use specific therapies which need to be clarified by further research based on this nosography.
Address Service medical de psychologie clinique appliquee a l'aeronautique, hopital d'instruction des Armees Percy, 101, avenue Henri-Barbusse, BP406, 92141 Clamart, France. Electronic address: yann.auxemery@hotmail.fr
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language French Summary Language Original Title Formes cliniques des depressions post-traumatiques
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0013-7006 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:25238908 Approved no
Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42198
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Author Dorahy, M.J.; van der Hart, O.
Title DSM-5's posttraumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: challenges and future directions Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Trauma & Dissociation : the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD) Abbreviated Journal J Trauma Dissociation
Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 7-28
Keywords *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Dissociative Disorders/*classification; Humans; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*classification; Terminology as Topic; dissociation; dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder; positive and negative dissociative symptoms; posttraumatic stress disorder
Abstract The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, formally recognizes a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; PTSD with dissociative symptoms). This nomenclative move will boost empirical and theoretical efforts to further understand the links between dissociation, trauma, and PTSD. This article examines the empirical literature showing that patients with PTSD can be divided into 2 different groups based on their neurobiology, psychological symptom profile, history of exposure to early relational trauma, and depersonalization/derealization symptoms. It then explores the conceptual and empirical challenges of conceiving 1 of these types as reflecting a “dissociative” type of PTSD. First, this classification is based on the presence of a limited subset of dissociative symptoms (i.e., depersonalization, derealization). This sets aside an array of positive and negative psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms that may be related to PTSD. Second, empirical evidence suggests heightened dissociation in PTSD compared to many other disorders, indicating that dissociation is relevant to PTSD more broadly rather than simply to the so-called dissociative subtype. This article sets out important issues to be examined in the future study of dissociation in PTSD, which needs to be informed by solid conceptual understandings of dissociation.
Address a Department of Psychology , University of Canterbury , Christchurch , New Zealand
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1529-9732 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24983300 Approved no
Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42200
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Author Pillon, Y.; Lucas, E.; Johansen, J. B.; Sakishima, T.; Hall, B.; Geib, S. M.; Stacy, E. A.
Title An expanded Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) to include Carpolepis and Tepualia based on nuclear genes Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Systematic Botany Abbreviated Journal
Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 782-790
Keywords
Abstract The genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) comprises 50-60 species, found largely across the Pacific Islands. The relationships within this genus, including the circumscriptions of the subgenera Mearnsia and Metrosideros and their relationships with the other members of the tribe Metrosidereae, namely the New Caledonian endemic genus Carpolepis and the South American Tepualia, are poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using previously published ITS sequences, covering most species of the tribe, and new sequences of five single-copy nuclear genes on a reduced sampling. The independent and combined analyses of the five nuclear genes using a range of approaches, including Bayesian single-gene, concatenated (MrBayes), concordance (BUCKy) and coalescent (*BEAST) analyses, yielded different topologies, indicating important conflicts among individual gene phylogenetic signals. The deep relationships within the tribe Metrosidereae remain poorly resolved, but our results indicate that the species of Carpolepis and Tepualia are likely nested in the genus Metrosideros. A broad circumscription of the genus Metrosideros is therefore adopted, and the new combinations Metrosideros laurifolia var. demonstrans, Metrosideros tardiflora and Metrosideros vitiensis are here published.
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Call Number NYBG @ sthackurdeen @ Serial 42390
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Author Combette, C.; Sémah, A.-M.; Wirrmann, D.
Title High-resolution pollen record from Efate Island, central Vanuatu: Highlighting climatic and human influences on Late Holocene vegetation dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Comptes Rendus Palevol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 251-261
Keywords
Abstract Climate changes, sea-level variations, volcanism and human activity have influenced the environment of the southwest Pacific Islands during the Holocene. The high-resolution palynological analysis presented here concerns two specific levels (main lithological changes) of a well-dated Holocene core, Tfer06, collected from Emaotfer Swamp, Efate Island (Vanuatu). Our aim is to understand the role of climatic variability and human activities in shaping vegetation during these changes. Between 3790–3600 cal yr BP, the development of vegetation marked by disturbance is a marker of an increase in sustained El Niño events, also observed in many Asian-West Pacific areas. Between 1500–900 cal yr BP, the increase in introduced taxa and in microcharcoal particles is interpreted as human impact. In a forthcoming paper, the ongoing high-resolution palynological analysis of the whole core will be compared and integrated into regional palaeoecological data.
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Call Number NYBG @ sthackurdeen @ Serial 42427
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Author Labiak, P. H.; Sundue, M. A.; Rouhan, G.; Moran, R. C.
Title Rhopalotricha, a New Subgenus of the Fern Genus Lastreopsis (Dryopteridaceae) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication American Fern Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume 105 Issue 1 Pages 20-30
Keywords
Abstract A new subgenus of Lastreopsis, subg. Rhopalotricha, is here described based on the results of our recent phylogenetic analyses. Its species differ from others in the genus by having a distinctive type of hair within the grooves of the rachises and costae adaxially. These are 1–3(–4)-celled and clavate, whereas the remainders of the species in the genus have hairs that are 3–12-celled and non-clavate. Subgenus Rhopalotricha also differs by having spores with broadly folded perispores with echinulate surfaces (vs. tuberculate or spiny, and with smooth surfaces). Subgenus Rhopalotricha occurs in the Neotropics, islands of the southwestern Pacific (Samoa, Fiji, and Vanuatu), New Zealand, and Australia. A key is provided to distinguish the species, each of which is treated with synonymy, description, geographic distribution by country, elevation ranges, and discussions. Lectotypes are also designated for Dryopteris amplissima var. subeffusa, Aspidium macrum Fée, and Aspidium latissimum Fée.
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Call Number NYBG @ sthackurdeen @ Serial 42430
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Author Thouvenot, L.
Title Contribution to the Bryophyte Flora of New Caledonia. II: Taxonomic Notes, New Taxa and Localities Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Bryologie Abbreviated Journal
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 97-106
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Abstract The sporophyte of Hymenodon tenellus is newly described. Comparison of types and further specimens allows to clarify the identity in New Caledonia of Bryum daenikeri and Macromitrium serpens and assign them respectively to B. pancheri and M. tongense. Four new species of liverworts: Andrewsianthus chimbuensis, Lejeunea stenodentata, Plagiochila integrilobula and Radula lingulata and new localities of Mitthyridium flavum and Trichosteleum stigmosum are reported.
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Call Number NYBG @ sthackurdeen @ Serial 42436
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Author Steenweg, R.J.; Hennin, H.L.; Bêty, J.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Williams, T.D.; Crossin, G.T.; Love, O.P.
Title Sources of diel variation in energetic physiology in an Arctic-breeding, diving seaduck Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal General and Comparative Endocrinology
Volume 216 Issue Pages 39-45
Keywords Arctic; Corticosterone; Diel rhythm; Energetic physiology; Sea duck; Triglyceride
Abstract Diel variation in baseline glucocorticoid (GC) secretion influences energetics and foraging behaviors. In temperate breeding, diurnal vertebrates, studies have shown that daily patterns of baseline GC secretion are influenced by environmental photoperiod, with baseline GCs peaking prior to sunrise to stimulate waking and foraging behaviors. Measures of physiological energy acquisition are also expected to peak in response to foraging activity, but their relationship to GC levels have not been well studied. In contrast to temperate breeding species, virtually nothing is known about diel GC and energetic metabolite secretion in Arctic breeding species, which experience almost constant photoperiods in spring and summer. Using a ten-year dataset, we examined the daily, 24-h pattern of baseline corticosterone (CORT) and triglyceride (TRIG) secretion in approximately 800 female pre-breeding Arctic-nesting common eiders (. Somateria mollissima). We related these traits to environmental photoperiod and to tidal cycle. In contrast to temperate breeding species, we found that that neither time of day nor tidal trend predicted diel variation in CORT or TRIG secretion in Arctic-breeding eiders. Given the narrow window of opportunity for breeding in polar regions, we suggest that eiders must decouple their daily foraging activity from light and tidal cycles if they are to accrue sufficient energy for successful breeding. As CORT is known to influence foraging behavior, the absence of a distinct diel pattern of CORT secretion may therefore be an adaptation to optimize reproductive investment and likelihood for success in some polar-breeding species. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Address Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada
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Notes Export Date: 17 March 2016 Approved no
Call Number McgGll @ elizabethburgess @ Serial 42530
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Author Hennin, H.L.; Legagneux, P.; Bêty, J.; Williams, T.D.; Grant Gilchrist, H.; Baker, T.M.; Love, O.P.
Title Pre-breeding energetic management in a mixed-strategy breeder Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume 177 Issue 1 Pages 235-243
Keywords Breeding threshold; Corticosterone; Energetic management; Energetic metabolites; Mixed-strategy breeder
Abstract Integrative biologists have long appreciated that the effective acquisition and management of energy prior to breeding should strongly influence fitness-related reproductive decisions (timing of breeding and reproductive investment). However, because of the difficulty in capturing pre-breeding individuals, and the tendency towards abandonment of reproduction after capture, we know little about the underlying mechanisms of these life-history decisions. Over 10 years, we captured free-living, arctic-breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) up to 3 weeks before investment in reproduction. We examined and characterized physiological parameters predicted to influence energetic management by sampling baseline plasma glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and vitellogenin (VTG) for their respective roles in mediating energetic balance, rate of condition gain (physiological fattening rate) and reproductive investment. Baseline corticosterone increased significantly from arrival to the initiation of reproductive investment (period of rapid follicular growth; RFG), and showed a positive relationship with body mass, indicating that this hormone may stimulate foraging behaviour to facilitate both fat deposition and investment in egg production. In support of this, we found that VLDL increased throughout the pre-breeding period, peaking as predicted during RFG. Female eiders exhibited unprecedentedly high levels of VTG well before their theoretical RFG period, a potential strategy for pre-emptively depositing available protein stores into follicles while females are simultaneously fattening. This study provides some of the first data examining the temporal dynamics and interaction of the energetic mechanisms thought to be at the heart of individual variation in reproductive decisions and success in many vertebrate species. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Address Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada
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Notes Cited By :1; Export Date: 17 March 2016 Approved no
Call Number McgGll @ elizabethburgess @ Serial 42531
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Author Émond, K.; Sainte-Marie, B.; Galbraith, P.S.; Bêty, J.
Title Top-down vs. bottom-up drivers of recruitment in a key marine invertebrate: Investigating early life stages of snow crab Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal ICES Journal of Marine Science
Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 1336-1348
Keywords cannibalism; climate; groundfish predation; larval production; population dynamics; recruitment; snow crab
Abstract Many snow crab fisheries have fluctuated widely over time in a quasi-cyclic way due to highly variable recruitment. The causes of this variability are still debated. Bottom-up processes related to climate variability may strongly affect growth and survival during early life, whereas top-down predator effects may be a major source of juvenile mortality. Moreover, intrinsic density-dependent processes, which have received much less attention, are hypothetically responsible for the cycles in recruitment. This study explored how climate, larval production, intercohort cannibalism and groundfish predation may have affected recruitment of early juvenile snow crab in the northwest Gulf of St Lawrence (eastern Canada) over a period of 23 years. Abundance of early juvenile snow crabs (2.5-22.9 mm in carapace width), representing the first 3 years of benthic life, came from an annual trawl survey and was used to determine cohort strength. Analyses revealed a cyclic pattern in abundance of 0+ crabs that may arise from cohort resonant effects. This pattern consisted of three recruitment pulses but was reduced to two pulses by age 2+, while the interannual variability of cohort strength was dampened. This reconfiguration of the earliest recruitment pattern was dictated primarily by bottom water temperature and cannibalism, which progressively overruled the pre-settlement factors of larval production and surface water temperature that best explained abundance of 0+ crabs. The results strongly suggest that bottom-up and density-dependent processes prevail over top-down control in setting the long-term trends and higher-frequency oscillations of snow crab early recruitment patterns. © 2015 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Address Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, 850 Route de la Mer, Mont-Joli, QC, Canada
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Notes Export Date: 17 March 2016 Approved no
Call Number McgGll @ elizabethburgess @ Serial 42532
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