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Author Mandal, S.; Gadagkar, R. doi  openurl
  Title Homing abilities of the tropical primitively eusocial paper wasp Ropalidia marginata Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Journal of Comparative Physiology A  
  Volume 201 Issue 8 Pages 795-802  
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  Abstract Compared to our extensive knowledge about the navigation and homing abilities of ants and bees, we know rather little about these phenomena in social wasps. Here, we report the homing abilities of the tropical primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata and the factors that affect their homing success. To determine from how far these wasps can return to their nests, we transported foragers blindfold and released them at gradually increasing distances from their nests in four cardinal directions. Their homing success was determined by checking their presence on their nests on three consecutive nights. All foragers (56 individuals, 115 releases) returned back from an area of 0.73 ± 0.25 km2 on the day of release (minimal homing area), whereas 83.8 % of the foragers (217 individuals, 420 releases) returned when we enlarged the area of release to 6.22 ± 0.66 km2 around their nests (maximal homing area). Of 66 releases, no wasps returned from beyond the maximal homing area. The minimal homing area might be familiar to the foragers because they probably routinely forage in this area and the maximal homing area represents the maximum distances from which the wasps are capable of returning to their nests, with or without familiarity.  
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  ISSN 1432-1351 ISBN (up) Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43021  
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Author Borges, R.M. openurl 
  Title How mutualisms between plants and insects are stabilized Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Current Science  
  Volume 108 Issue 10 Pages 1862-1868  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43028  
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Author Deepak, V.; Vyas, R.; Giri, V.B.; Karanth, K.P. openurl 
  Title A taxonomic mystery for more than 180 years: the identity and systematic position of Brachysaura minor (HARDWICKE & GRAY, 1827) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Vertebrate Zoology  
  Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 371-381  
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  ISSN 1864-5755 ISBN (up) Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43033  
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Author Gadagkar, R. openurl 
  Title How should biologists engage with controversial mathematical theory? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Current Science  
  Volume 108 Issue 10 Pages 1869-1873  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43034  
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Author Naniwadekar, R.; Shukla, U.; Isvaran, K.; Datta, A. url  openurl
  Title Reduced Hornbill Abundance Associated with Low Seed Arrival and Altered Recruitment in a Hunted and Logged Tropical Forest Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages e0120062  
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  Abstract Logging and hunting are two key direct threats to the survival of wildlife in the tropics, and also disrupt important ecosystem processes. We investigated the impacts of these two factors on the different stages of the seed dispersal cycle, including abundance of plants and their dispersers and dispersal of seeds and recruitment, in a tropical forest in north-east India. We focused on hornbills, which are important seed dispersers in these forests, and their food tree species. We compared abundances of hornbill food tree species in a site with high logging and hunting pressures (heavily disturbed) with a site that had no logging and relatively low levels of hunting (less disturbed) to understand logging impacts on hornbill food tree abundance. We compared hornbill abundances across these two sites. We, then, compared the scatter-dispersed seed arrival of five large-seeded tree species and the recruitment of four of those species. Abundances of hornbill food trees that are preferentially targeted by logging were two times higher in the less disturbed site as compared to the heavily disturbed site while that of hornbills was 22 times higher. The arrival of scatter-dispersed seeds was seven times higher in the less disturbed site. Abundances of recruits of two tree species were significantly higher in the less disturbed site. For another species, abundances of younger recruits were significantly lower while that of older recruits were higher in the heavily disturbed site. Our findings suggest that logging reduces food plant abundance for an important frugivore-seed disperser group, while hunting diminishes disperser abundances, with an associated reduction in seed arrival and altered recruitment of animal-dispersed tree species in the disturbed site. Based on our results, we present a conceptual model depicting the relationships and pathways between vertebrate-dispersed trees, their dispersers, and the impacts of hunting and logging on these pathways.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43037  
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Author Ramachandra, T.V.; Bharath, A.H.; Sowmyashree, M.V. url  openurl
  Title Monitoring urbanization and its implications in a mega city from space: Spatiotemporal patterns and its indicators Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management  
  Volume 148 Issue Pages 67-81  
  Keywords Delhi; Remote sensing; Spatial metrics; Urbanization; Urban sprawl  
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  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN (up) Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43048  
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Author Lagendijk, D.D.G.; Thaker, M.; de Boer, W.F.; Page, B.R.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R. url  openurl
  Title Change in Mesoherbivore Browsing Is Mediated by Elephant and Hillslope Position Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages e0128340  
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  Abstract Elephant are considered major drivers of ecosystems, but their effects within small-scale landscape features and on other herbivores still remain unclear. Elephant impact on vegetation has been widely studied in areas where elephant have been present for many years. We therefore examined the combined effect of short-term elephant presence (< 4 years) and hillslope position on tree species assemblages, resource availability, browsing intensity and soil properties. Short-term elephant presence did not affect woody species assemblages, but did affect height distribution, with greater sapling densities in elephant access areas. Overall tree and stem densities were also not affected by elephant. By contrast, slope position affected woody species assemblages, but not height distributions and densities. Variation in species assemblages was statistically best explained by levels of total cations, Zinc, sand and clay. Although elephant and mesoherbivore browsing intensities were unaffected by slope position, we found lower mesoherbivore browsing intensity on crests with high elephant browsing intensity. Thus, elephant appear to indirectly facilitate the survival of saplings, via the displacement of mesoherbivores, providing a window of opportunity for saplings to grow into taller trees. In the short-term, effects of elephant can be minor and in the opposite direction of expectation. In addition, such behavioural displacement promotes recruitment of saplings into larger height classes. The interaction between slope position and elephant effect found here is in contrast with other studies, and illustrates the importance of examining ecosystem complexity as a function of variation in species presence and topography. The absence of a direct effect of elephant on vegetation, but the presence of an effect on mesoherbivore browsing, is relevant for conservation areas especially where both herbivore groups are actively managed.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43051  
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Author Naniwadekar, R.; Mishra, C.; Isvaran, K.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A. url  openurl
  Title Looking beyond parks: the conservation value of unprotected areas for hornbills in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Oryx  
  Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages 303-311  
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  Abstract AbstractThe loss of tropical forests and associated biodiversity is a global concern. Conservation efforts in tropical countries such as India have mostly focused on state-administered protected areas despite the existence of vast tracts of forest outside these areas. We studied hornbills (Bucerotidae), an ecologically important vertebrate group and a flagship for tropical forest conservation, to assess the importance of forests outside protected areas in Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. We conducted a state-wide survey to record encounters with hornbills in seven protected areas, six state-managed reserved forests and six community-managed unclassed forests. We estimated the density of hornbills in one protected area, four reserved forests and two unclassed forests in eastern Arunachal Pradesh. The state-wide survey showed that the mean rate of encounter of rufous-necked hornbills Aceros nipalensis was four times higher in protected areas than in reserved forests and 22 times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The mean rate of encounter of wreathed hornbills Rhyticeros undulatus was twice as high in protected areas as in reserved forests and eight times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The densities of rufous-necked hornbill were higher inside protected areas, whereas the densities of great hornbill Buceros bicornis and wreathed hornbill were similar inside and outside protected areas. Key informant surveys revealed possible extirpation of some hornbill species at sites in two protected areas and three unclassed forests. These results highlight a paradoxical situation where individual populations of hornbills are being lost even in some legally protected habitat, whereas they continue to persist over most of the landscape. Better protection within protected areas and creative community-based conservation efforts elsewhere are necessary to maintain hornbill populations in this biodiversity-rich region.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43054  
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Author Karanth, P.K. openurl 
  Title An island called India: phylogenetic patterns across multiple taxonomic groups reveal endemic radiations Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Current Science  
  Volume 108 Issue 10 Pages 1847-1851  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43063  
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Author Sekar, S.; Karanth, K.P. doi  openurl
  Title Does size matter? Comparative population genetics of two butterflies with different wingspans Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Organisms Diversity & Evolution  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 567-575  
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  Abstract The dispersal ability of a species is central to its biology, affecting other processes like local adaptation, population and community dynamics, and genetic structure. Among the intrinsic, species-specific factors that affect dispersal ability in butterflies, wingspan was recently shown to explain a high amount of variance in dispersal ability. In this study, a comparative approach was adopted to test whether a difference in wingspan translates into a difference in population genetic structure. Two closely related butterfly species from subfamily Satyrinae, family Nymphalidae, which are similar with respect to all traits that affect dispersal ability except for wingspan, were studied. Melanitis leda (wingspan 60–80 mm) and Ypthima baldus (wingspan 30–40 mm) were collected from the same areas along the Western Ghats of southern India. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were used to test whether the species with a higher wingspan (M. leda) exhibited a more homogenous population genetic structure, as compared to a species with a shorter wingspan (Y. baldus). In all analyses, Y. baldus exhibited greater degree of population genetic structuring. This study is one of the few adopting a comparative approach to establish the relationship between traits that affect dispersal ability and population genetic structure.  
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  ISSN 1618-1077 ISBN (up) Medium  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43064  
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