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Author Lagendijk, D.D.G.; Thaker, M.; de Boer, W.F.; Page, B.R.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R. url  openurl
  Title Change in Mesoherbivore Browsing Is Mediated by Elephant and Hillslope Position Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages e0128340  
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  Abstract Elephant are considered major drivers of ecosystems, but their effects within small-scale landscape features and on other herbivores still remain unclear. Elephant impact on vegetation has been widely studied in areas where elephant have been present for many years. We therefore examined the combined effect of short-term elephant presence (< 4 years) and hillslope position on tree species assemblages, resource availability, browsing intensity and soil properties. Short-term elephant presence did not affect woody species assemblages, but did affect height distribution, with greater sapling densities in elephant access areas. Overall tree and stem densities were also not affected by elephant. By contrast, slope position affected woody species assemblages, but not height distributions and densities. Variation in species assemblages was statistically best explained by levels of total cations, Zinc, sand and clay. Although elephant and mesoherbivore browsing intensities were unaffected by slope position, we found lower mesoherbivore browsing intensity on crests with high elephant browsing intensity. Thus, elephant appear to indirectly facilitate the survival of saplings, via the displacement of mesoherbivores, providing a window of opportunity for saplings to grow into taller trees. In the short-term, effects of elephant can be minor and in the opposite direction of expectation. In addition, such behavioural displacement promotes recruitment of saplings into larger height classes. The interaction between slope position and elephant effect found here is in contrast with other studies, and illustrates the importance of examining ecosystem complexity as a function of variation in species presence and topography. The absence of a direct effect of elephant on vegetation, but the presence of an effect on mesoherbivore browsing, is relevant for conservation areas especially where both herbivore groups are actively managed.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43051  
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Author Naniwadekar, R.; Mishra, C.; Isvaran, K.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A. url  openurl
  Title Looking beyond parks: the conservation value of unprotected areas for hornbills in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Oryx  
  Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages 303-311  
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  Abstract AbstractThe loss of tropical forests and associated biodiversity is a global concern. Conservation efforts in tropical countries such as India have mostly focused on state-administered protected areas despite the existence of vast tracts of forest outside these areas. We studied hornbills (Bucerotidae), an ecologically important vertebrate group and a flagship for tropical forest conservation, to assess the importance of forests outside protected areas in Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. We conducted a state-wide survey to record encounters with hornbills in seven protected areas, six state-managed reserved forests and six community-managed unclassed forests. We estimated the density of hornbills in one protected area, four reserved forests and two unclassed forests in eastern Arunachal Pradesh. The state-wide survey showed that the mean rate of encounter of rufous-necked hornbills Aceros nipalensis was four times higher in protected areas than in reserved forests and 22 times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The mean rate of encounter of wreathed hornbills Rhyticeros undulatus was twice as high in protected areas as in reserved forests and eight times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The densities of rufous-necked hornbill were higher inside protected areas, whereas the densities of great hornbill Buceros bicornis and wreathed hornbill were similar inside and outside protected areas. Key informant surveys revealed possible extirpation of some hornbill species at sites in two protected areas and three unclassed forests. These results highlight a paradoxical situation where individual populations of hornbills are being lost even in some legally protected habitat, whereas they continue to persist over most of the landscape. Better protection within protected areas and creative community-based conservation efforts elsewhere are necessary to maintain hornbill populations in this biodiversity-rich region.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43054  
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Author Karanth, P.K. openurl 
  Title An island called India: phylogenetic patterns across multiple taxonomic groups reveal endemic radiations Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Current Science  
  Volume 108 Issue 10 Pages 1847-1851  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43063  
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Author Slik, J.W.F.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, V.; Aiba, S.-I.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Alves, L.F.; Ashton, P.; Balvanera, P.; Bastian, M.L.; Bellingham, P.J.; van den Berg, E.; Bernacci, L.; da Conceição Bispo, P.; Blanc, L.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Boeckx, P.; Bongers, F.; Boyle, B.; Bradford, M.; Brearley, F.Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, M.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Calderado Leal Matos, D.; Castillo-Santiago, M.; Catharino, E.L.M.; Chai, S.-L.; Chen, Y.; Colwell, R.K.; Chazdon, R.L.; Clark, C.; Clark, D.B.; Clark, D.A.; Culmsee, H.; Damas, K.; Dattaraja, H.S.; Dauby, G.; Davidar, P.; DeWalt, S.J.; Doucet, J.-L.; Duque, A.; Durigan, G.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.; Eisenlohr, P.V.; Eler, E.; Ewango, C.; Farwig, N.; Feeley, K.J.; Ferreira, L.; Field, R.; de Oliveira Filho, A.T.; Fletcher, C.; Forshed, O.; Franco, G.; Fredriksson, G.; Gillespie, T.; Gillet, J.-F.; Amarnath, G.; Griffith, D.M.; Grogan, J.; Gunatilleke, N.; Harris, D.; Harrison, R.; Hector, A.; Homeier, J.; Imai, N.; Itoh, A.; Jansen, P.A.; Joly, C.A.; de Jong, B.H.J.; Kartawinata, K.; Kearsley, E.; Kelly, D.L.; Kenfack, D.; Kessler, M.; Kitayama, K.; Kooyman, R.; Larney, E.; Laumonier, Y.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W.F.; Lawes, M.J.; Amaral, I.L. do; Letcher, S.G.; Lindsell, J.; Lu, X.; Mansor, A.; Marjokorpi, A.; Martin, E.H.; Meilby, H.; Melo, F.P.L.; Metcalfe, D.J.; Medjibe, V.P.; Metzger, J.P.; Millet, J.; Mohandass, D.; Montero, J.C.; de Morisson Valeriano, M.; Mugerwa, B.; Nagamasu, H.; Nilus, R.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Onrizal; Page, N.; Parolin, P.; Parren, M.; Parthasarathy, N.; Paudel, E.; Permana, A.; Piedade, M.T.F.; Pitman, N.C.A.; Poorter, L.; Poulsen, A.D.; Poulsen, J.; Powers, J.; Prasad, R.C.; Puyravaud, J.-P.; Razafimahaimodison, J.-C.; Reitsma, J.; dos Santos, J.R.; Roberto Spironello, W.; Romero-Saltos, H.; Rovero, F.; Rozak, A.H.; Ruokolainen, K.; Rutishauser, E.; Saiter, F.; Saner, P.; Santos, B.A.; Santos, F.; Sarker, S.K.; Satdichanh, M.; Schmitt, C.B.; Schöngart, J.; Schulze, M.; Suganuma, M.S.; Sheil, D.; da Silva Pinheiro, E.; Sist, P.; Stevart, T.; Sukumar, R.; Sun, I.-F.; Sunderland, T.; Suresh, H.S.; Suzuki, E.; Tabarelli, M.; Tang, J.; Targhetta, N.; Theilade, I.; Thomas, D.W.; Tchouto, P.; Hurtado, J.; Valencia, R.; van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H.; Van Do, T.; Vasquez, R.; Verbeeck, H.; Adekunle, V.; Vieira, S.A.; Webb, C.O.; Whitfeld, T.; Wich, S.A.; Williams, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wöll, H.; Yang, X.; Adou Yao, C.Y.; Yap, S.L.; Yoneda, T.; Zahawi, R.A.; Zakaria, R.; Zang, R.; de Assis, R.L.; Garcia Luize, B.; Venticinque, E.M. url  openurl
  Title An estimate of the number of tropical tree species Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  
  Volume 112 Issue 24 Pages 7472-7477  
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  Abstract The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa.  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43105  
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Author Dinesh, K.P.; Vijayakumar, S.P.; Channakeshavamurthy, B.H.; Toreskar, V.R.; Kulkarni, N.U.; Shanker, K. openurl 
  Title Systematic status of Fejervarya (Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae) from South and SE Asia with the description of a new species from the Western Ghats of Peninsular India Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Zootaxa  
  Volume 3999 Issue 1 Pages 079-094  
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  Call Number CES @ dilipnaidu.gt @ Serial 43132  
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Author Skirnisdottir, I.; Seidal, T.; Åkerud, H. url  openurl
  Title Differences in Clinical and Biological Features Between Type I and Type II Tumors in FIGO Stages I-II Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Int J Gynecol Cancer  
  Volume 25 Issue 7 Pages 1239-1247  
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  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare immunohistochemical profile for the apoptosis regulators p53, C-MYC, bax, PUMA, and PTEN and the cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p27, as well as clinical factors between types I and II tumors. METHODS: In total, 131 patients in FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stages I-II were divided into 2 groups of patients after type I tumors (n = 79) and type II tumors (n = 52). Differences in the immunohistochemical profile for the cell cycle-related proteins, detected by tissue microarrays and immune-histochemistry, were compared. For statistical tests, the Pearson χ test and the logistic regression model were used. All tests were 2-sided, and the level of statistical significance was P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression analysis with recurrent disease as endpoint, FIGO stage (odds ratio [OR], 4.7), type I/II tumors (OR, 3.8), body mass index (BMI) (OR, 3.5), and p53 status (OR, 4.2) all were found to be independent predictive factors. In 2 different multivariate logistic regression analyses with type I/II tumors as endpoint, both p53p21 (OR, 2.9) and p27 status (OR, 3.0) were associated with type II tumors. Differently, C-MYC status (OR, 0.4) was associated with type I tumors. Furthermore, age (OR, 1.04), BMI (OR, 0.4), and recurrent disease (OR, 4.3) all were associated to type II tumors. In survival analysis, there was a trend (P = 0.054) toward better disease-free survival for patients with type I tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant positivity for p53 and negativity for p21, positivity for p27, and negativity for C-MYC in an epithelial ovarian tumor might strengthen the diagnostic option of type II tumor ovarian carcinoma. Patients with type II tumors were older, had lower BMI, and had more often recurrent disease than patients with type I tumors.  
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  Call Number UofT @ ankit.sinha @ Serial 44930  
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Author Ng, A.; Barker, N. url  openurl
  Title Ovary and fimbrial stem cells: biology, niche and cancer origins Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol  
  Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 625-638  
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  Abstract The mammalian ovary is covered by a single-layered epithelium that undergoes rupture and remodelling following each ovulation. Although resident stem cells are presumed to be crucial for this cyclic regeneration, their identity and mode of action have been elusive. Surrogate stemness assays and in vivo fate-mapping studies using recently discovered stem cell markers have identified stem cell pools in the ovary and fimbria that ensure epithelial homeostasis. Recent findings provide insights into intrinsic mechanisms and local extrinsic cues that govern the function of ovarian and fimbrial stem cells. These discoveries have advanced our understanding of stem cell biology in the ovary and fimbria, and lay the foundations for evaluating the contribution of resident stem cells to the initiation and progression of human epithelial ovarian cancer.  
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  Call Number UofT @ ankit.sinha @ Serial 44935  
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Author Hunter, S.M.; Anglesio, M.S.; Ryland, G.L.; Sharma, R.; Chiew, Y.E.; Rowley, S.M.; Doyle, M.A.; Li, J.; Gilks, C.B.; Moss, P.; Allan, P.E.; Stephens, A.N.; Huntsman, D.G.; deFazio, A.; Bowtell, D.D.; Australian, O.C.S.G.; Gorringe, K.L.; Campbell, I.G. url  openurl
  Title Molecular profiling of low grade serous ovarian tumours identifies novel candidate driver genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Oncotarget  
  Volume 6 Issue 35 Pages 37663-37677  
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  Abstract Low grade serous ovarian tumours are a rare and under-characterised histological subtype of epithelial ovarian tumours, with little known of the molecular drivers and facilitators of tumorigenesis beyond classic oncogenic RAS/RAF mutations. With a move towards targeted therapies due to the chemoresistant nature of this subtype, it is pertinent to more fully characterise the genetic events driving this tumour type, some of which may influence response to therapy and/or development of drug resistance. We performed genome-wide high-resolution genomic copy number analysis (Affymetrix SNP6.0) and mutation hotspot screening (KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, ERBB2 and TP53) to compare a large cohort of ovarian serous borderline tumours (SBTs, n = 57) with low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs, n = 19). Whole exome sequencing was performed for 13 SBTs, nine LGSCs and one mixed low/high grade carcinoma. Copy number aberrations were detected in 61% (35/57) of SBTs, compared to 100% (19/19) of LGSCs. Oncogenic RAS/RAF/ERBB2 mutations were detected in 82.5% (47/57) of SBTs compared to 63% (12/19) of LGSCs, with NRAS mutations detected only in LGSC. Some copy number aberrations appeared to be enriched in LGSC, most significantly loss of 9p and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus. Exome sequencing identified BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, USP9X and EIF1AX as the most frequently mutated genes. We have identified markers of progression from borderline to LGSC and novel drivers of LGSC. USP9X and EIF1AX have both been linked to regulation of mTOR, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a key companion treatment for targeted therapy trials of MEK and RAF inhibitors.  
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  Call Number UofT @ ankit.sinha @ Serial 44942  
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Author Kampan, N.C.; Madondo, M.T.; McNally, O.M.; Quinn, M.; Plebanski, M. url  openurl
  Title Paclitaxel and Its Evolving Role in the Management of Ovarian Cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal Biomed Res Int  
  Volume 2015 Issue Pages 413076  
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  Abstract Paclitaxel, a class of taxane with microtubule stabilising ability, has remained with platinum based therapy, the standard care for primary ovarian cancer management. A deeper understanding of the immunological basis and other potential mechanisms of action together with new dosing schedules and/or routes of administration may potentiate its clinical benefit. Newer forms of taxanes, with better safety profiles and higher intratumoural cytotoxicity, have yet to demonstrate clinical superiority over the parent compound.  
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  Call Number UofT @ ankit.sinha @ Serial 45056  
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Author Wright, A.A.; Cronin, A.; Milne, D.E.; Bookman, M.A.; Burger, R.A.; Cohn, D.E.; Cristea, M.C.; Griggs, J.J.; Keating, N.L.; Levenback, C.F.; Mantia-Smaldone, G.; Matulonis, U.A.; Meyer, L.A.; Niland, J.C.; Weeks, J.C.; O’Malley, D.M. url  openurl
  Title Use and Effectiveness of Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal J Clin Oncol  
  Volume 33 Issue 26 Pages 2841-2847  
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  Abstract PURPOSE: A 2006 randomized trial demonstrated a 16-month survival benefit with intraperitoneal and intravenous (IP/IV) chemotherapy administered to patients who had ovarian cancer, compared with IV chemotherapy alone, but more treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to examine the use and effectiveness of IP/IV chemotherapy in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 823 women with stage III, optimally cytoreduced ovarian cancer diagnosed at six National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions. We examined IP/IV chemotherapy use in all patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2012 (N = 823), and overall survival and treatment-related toxicities with Cox regression and logistic regression, respectively, in a propensity score-matched sample (n = 402) of patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2012, excluding trial participants, to minimize selection bias. RESULTS: Use of IP/IV chemotherapy increased from 0% to 33% between 2003 and 2006, increased to 50% from 2007 to 2008, and plateaued thereafter. Between 2006 and 2012, adoption of IP/IV chemotherapy varied by institution from 4% to 67% (P <.001) and 43% of patients received modified IP/IV regimens at treatment initiation. In the propensity score-matched sample, IP/IV chemotherapy was associated with significantly improved overall survival (3-year overall survival, 81% v 71%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.99), compared with IV chemotherapy, but also more frequent alterations in chemotherapy delivery route (adjusted rates discontinuation or change, 20.4% v 10.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.47 to 5.47). CONCLUSION: Although the use of IP/IV chemotherapy increased significantly at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers between 2003 and 2012, fewer than 50% of eligible patients received it. Increasing IP/IV chemotherapy use in clinical practice may be an important and underused strategy to improve ovarian cancer outcomes.  
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  Call Number UofT @ ankit.sinha @ Serial 45060  
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