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Author Wolf, E.J.; Mitchell, K.S.; Sadeh, N.; Hein, C.; Fuhrman, I.; Pietrzak, R.H.; Miller, M.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Scale: Initial Evaluation in a National Sample of Trauma-Exposed Veterans Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Assessment Abbreviated Journal Assessment  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Ptsd; dissociative subtype; latent profile analysis; psychometric  
  Abstract The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual includes a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, but no existing measures specifically assess it. This article describes the initial evaluation of a 15-item self-report measure of the subtype called the Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (DSPS) in an online survey of 697 trauma-exposed military veterans representative of the U.S. veteran population. Exploratory factor analyses of the lifetime DSPS items supported the intended structure of the measure consisting of three factors reflecting derealization/depersonalization, loss of awareness, and psychogenic amnesia. Consistent with prior research, latent profile analyses assigned 8.3% of the sample to a highly dissociative class distinguished by pronounced symptoms of derealization and depersonalization. Overall, results provide initial psychometric support for the lifetime DSPS scales; additional research in clinical and community samples is needed to further validate the measure.  
  Address National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1073-1911 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26603115 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42170  
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Author Hansen, M.; Hyland, P.; Armour, C.; Shevlin, M.; Elklit, A. url  openurl
  Title Less is more? Assessing the validity of the ICD-11 model of PTSD across multiple trauma samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 28766  
  Keywords Cfa; Dsm-5; Icd-11; Ptsd; latent structure  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: In the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the symptom profile of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was expanded to include 20 symptoms. An alternative model of PTSD is outlined in the proposed 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that includes just six symptoms. OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: The objectives of the current study are: 1) to independently investigate the fit of the ICD-11 model of PTSD, and three DSM-5-based models of PTSD, across seven different trauma samples (N=3,746) using confirmatory factor analysis; 2) to assess the concurrent validity of the ICD-11 model of PTSD; and 3) to determine if there are significant differences in diagnostic rates between the ICD-11 guidelines and the DSM-5 criteria. RESULTS: The ICD-11 model of PTSD was found to provide excellent model fit in six of the seven trauma samples, and tests of factorial invariance showed that the model performs equally well for males and females. DSM-5 models provided poor fit of the data. Concurrent validity was established as the ICD-11 PTSD factors were all moderately to strongly correlated with scores of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and aggression. Levels of association were similar for ICD-11 and DSM-5 suggesting that explanatory power is not affected due to the limited number of items included in the ICD-11 model. Diagnostic rates were significantly lower according to ICD-11 guidelines compared to the DSM-5 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed factor structure of the ICD-11 model of PTSD appears valid across multiple trauma types, possesses good concurrent validity, and is more stringent in terms of diagnosis compared to the DSM-5 criteria.  
  Address Department of Psychology, National Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26450830 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42172  
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Author Webermann, A.R.; Myrick, A.C.; Taylor, C.L.; Chasson, G.S.; Brand, B.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Trauma & Dissociation : the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD) Abbreviated Journal J Trauma Dissociation  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 1-14  
  Keywords Childhood abuse; dissociation; dissociative disorders; dissociative identity disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; suicide  
  Abstract The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.  
  Address a Department of Psychology, Towson University , Towson , Maryland , USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1529-9732 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26211678 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42176  
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Author Bae, H.; Kim, D.; Park, Y.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissociation predicts treatment response in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Trauma & Dissociation : the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD) Abbreviated Journal J Trauma Dissociation  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 1-19  
  Keywords Posttraumatic stress disorder; comorbidity; dissociation; eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing; treatment response  
  Abstract Using clinical data from a specialized trauma clinic, this study investigated pretreatment clinical factors predicting response to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) among adult patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale before treatment and were reassessed using the CAPS after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 69 patients underwent an average of 4 sessions of EMDR, and 60 (87%) completed the posttreatment evaluation, including 8 participants who terminated treatment prematurely. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that 39 (65%) of the 60 patients were classified as responders and 21 (35%) as nonresponders when response was defined as more than a 30% decrease in total CAPS score. The nonresponders had higher levels of dissociation (depersonalization and derealization) and numbing symptoms, but other PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance, hyperarousal, and intrusion, were not significantly different. The number of psychiatric comorbidities was also associated with treatment nonresponse. The final logistic regression model yielded 2 significant variables: dissociation (p < .001) and more than 2 comorbidities compared to none (p < .05). These results indicate that complex symptom patterns in PTSD may predict treatment response and support the inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.  
  Address b Department of Psychiatry , Hanyang University Medical School , Seoul , South Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1529-9732 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26156867 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42179  
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Author Daniels, J.K.; Frewen, P.; Theberge, J.; Lanius, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Structural brain aberrations associated with the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords dissociation; grey matter; post-traumatic stress disorder; voxel-based morphometry  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: One factor potentially contributing to the heterogeneity of previous results on structural grey matter alterations in adult participants suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the varying levels of dissociative symptomatology. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether the recently defined dissociative subtype of PTSD characterized by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization is characterized by specific differences in volumetric brain morphology. METHOD: Whole-brain MRI data were acquired for 59 patients with PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences between patients classified as belonging (n = 15) vs. not belonging (n = 44) to the dissociative subtype of PTSD. The correlation between dissociation (depersonalization/derealization) severity and grey matter volume was computed. RESULTS: Patients with PTSD classified as belonging to the dissociative subtype exhibited greater grey matter volume in the right precentral and fusiform gyri as well as less volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Greater dissociation severity was associated with greater volume in the right middle frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION: The results of this first whole-brain investigation of specific grey matter volume in dissociative subtype PTSD indentified structural aberrations in regions subserving the processing and regulation of emotional arousal. These might constitute characteristic biomarkers for the dissociative subtype PTSD.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Western University, London, ON, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-690X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26138235 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42180  
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Author Lanius, R.A. url  openurl
  Title Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 27905  
  Keywords Dissociation; anterior cingulate; complex PTSD; consciousness; dissociative subtype; emotion; insula; interoceptive awareness  
  Abstract The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.  
  Address Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; Ruth.Lanius@lhsc.on.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25994026 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42183  
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Author Schalinski, I.; Schauer, M.; Elbert, T. url  openurl
  Title The shutdown dissociation scale (shut-d) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 25652  
  Keywords Ptsd; Shutdown dissociation; assessment; multiple trauma; subtype  
  Abstract The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25976478 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42184  
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Author Tsai, J.; Armour, C.; Southwick, S.M.; Pietrzak, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissociative subtype of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. veterans Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Psychiatric Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychiatr Res  
  Volume 66-67 Issue (up) Pages 67-74  
  Keywords Dissociation; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Substance abuse; Veterans  
  Abstract The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) formally introduced a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the proportion of U.S. veterans with DSM-5 PTSD that report dissociative symptoms; and compared veterans with PTSD with and without the dissociative subtype and trauma-exposed controls on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and quality of life. Multivariable analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of 1484 veterans from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (second baseline survey conducted September-October, 2013). Of the 12.0% and 5.2% of veterans who screened positive for lifetime and past-month DSM-5 PTSD, 19.2% and 16.1% screened positive for the dissociative subtype, respectively. Among veterans with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype reported more severe PTSD symptoms, comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use problems, and hostility than those without the dissociative subtype. Adjusting for PTSD symptom severity, those with the dissociative subtype continued to report more depression and alcohol use problems. These results underscore the importance of assessing, monitoring, and treating the considerable proportion of veterans with PTSD and dissociative symptoms.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; United States Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Clinical Neurosciences Division, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, United States  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3956 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25969340 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42186  
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Author Frewen, P.A.; Brown, M.F.D.; Steuwe, C.; Lanius, R.A. url  openurl
  Title Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Psychotraumatology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Psychotraumatol  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 26406  
  Keywords Posttraumatic stress disorder; dissociation; dissociative subtype; psychological trauma; trauma-related altered states of consciousness  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. METHOD: We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. RESULTS: A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.  
  Address Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2000-8066 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25854673 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42188  
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Author Hansen, M.; Armour, C.; Wang, L.; Elklit, A.; Bryant, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing possible DSM-5 ASD subtypes in a sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following multiple forms of traumatic exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Anxiety Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Anxiety Disord  
  Volume 31 Issue (up) Pages 84-89  
  Keywords Crime Victims/*psychology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Disaster Victims/*psychology; Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis; Female; Humans; Male; Rape/psychology; Self Report; Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/*diagnosis/psychology; Violence/psychology; ASD subtypes; Acute stress disorder; Dsm-5; Icd-11; Latent profile analysis  
  Abstract Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the DSM-IV to recognize early traumatic responses and as a precursor of PTSD. Although the diagnostic criteria for ASD were altered and structured more similarly to the PTSD definition in DSM-5, only the PTSD diagnosis includes a dissociative subtype. Emerging research has indicated that there also appears to be a highly symptomatic subtype for ASD. However, the specific nature of the subtype is currently unclear. The present study investigates the possible presence of ASD subtypes in a mixed sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following four different types of traumatic exposure (N=472). The results of latent profile analysis revealed a 5-class solution. The highly symptomatic class was marked by high endorsement on avoidance and dissociation compared to the other classes. Findings are discussed in regard to its clinical implications including the implications for the pending the ICD-11 and the recently released DSM-5.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0887-6185 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25768397 Approved no  
  Call Number UU @ jana.mullerova @ Serial 42192  
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